In the Classroom

The previous chapter described how to practice in-class teaching and described one method—live coding—that allows teachers to adapt to their learners’ pace and interests. This chapter describes other practices that have proven helpful in programming classes.

Before describing these practices, it’s worth pausing for a moment to set expectations. The best teaching method we know is individual tutoring: Bloo1984 found that students taught one-to-one using mastery learning techniques performed two standard deviations better than those who learned through conventional lecture, i.e., that individually-tutored students did better than 98% of students who were lectured to. However, hiring one teacher for every student is impossibly expensive (and despite the hype, artificial intelligence isn’t going to take the place of human instructors any time soon). Every method is essentially an attempt to get as much of the value of individual attention as possible, but at scale.

Enforce the Code of Conduct

s:intro said that every workshop should have and enforce a Code of Conduct like the one in s:conduct. If you are a teacher, and believe that someone has violated it, you may warn them, ask them to apologize, and/or expel them, depending on the severity of the violation and whether or not you believe it was intentional. Whatever you do:

Do it in front of witnesses.
Most people will tone down their language and hostility in front of an audience, and having someone else present ensures that later discussion doesn’t degenerate into conflicting claims about who said what.
If you expel someone, say so to the rest of the class and explain why.
This helps prevent exaggerated rumors from taking hold, and also signals very clearly to everyone that you’re serious about making your class safe and respectful for them.
Contact the host of your class
as soon as you can and describe what happened.

A Code of Conduct is meaningless without procedures for reporting violations and enforcing its rules. However much you don’t enjoy doing the latter, remember that the former can be a much greater burden for people who have been targets.

Peer Instruction

No matter how good a teacher is, she can only say one thing at a time. How then can she clear up many different misconceptions in a reasonable time? The best solution developed so far is a technique called peer instruction. Originally created by Eric Mazur at Harvard Mazu1996, it has been studied extensively in a wide variety of contexts, including programming Crou2001,Port2013, and Port2016 found that students value peer instruction even at first contact.

Peer instruction is essentially a way to provide one-to-one mentorship in a scalable way. It interleaves formative assessment with student discussion as follows:

1. Give a brief introduction to the topic.

2. Give students a multiple choice question that probes for misconceptions (rather than simple factual knowledge).

3. Have all the students vote on their answers to the MCQ.

• If the students all have the right answer, move on.

• If they all have the same wrong answer, address that specific misconception.

• If they have a mix of right and wrong answers, give them several minutes to discuss those answers with one another in small groups (typically 2–4 students) and then reconvene and vote again.

As this video from Avanti’s learning center in Kanpur shows, group discussion significantly improves students’ understanding because it forces them to clarify their thinking, which can be enough to call out gaps in reasoning. Re-polling the class then lets the teacher know if they can move on, or if further explanation is necessary. A final round of additional explanation and discussion after the correct answer is presented gives students one more chance to solidify their understanding.

But could this be a false positive? Are results improving because of increased understanding during discussion, or simply from a follow-the-leader effect (“vote like Jane, she’s always right”)? Smit2009 tested this by following the first question with a second one that students answer individually. Sure enough, peer discussion actually does enhance understanding, even when none of the students in a discussion group originally knew the correct answer.

Taking a Stand

It is important to have learners vote publicly so that they can’t change their minds afterward and rationalize it by making excuses to themselves like “I just misread the question”. Much of the value of peer instruction comes from the hypercorrection of having their answer be wrong and having to think through the reasons why (s:individual-strategies).

Teach Together

Co-teaching describes any situation in which two teachers work together in the same classroom. Frie2016 describes several ways to do this:

Team teaching:
Both teachers deliver a single stream of content in tandem, taking turns the way that musicians taking solos would.
Teach and assist:
Teacher A teaches while Teacher B moves around the classroom to help struggling students.
Alternative teaching:
Teacher A provides a small set of students with more intensive or specialized instruction while Teacher B delivers a general lesson to the main group.
Teach and observe:
Teacher A teaches while Teacher B observes the students, collecting data on their understanding to help plan future lessons.
Parallel teaching:
The class is divided into two equal groups and the teachers present the same material simultaneously to each.
Station teaching:
The students are divided into several small groups that rotate from one station or activity to the next while both teachers supervise where needed.

All of these models create more opportunities for lateral knowledge transfer than teaching alone. Team teaching is particularly beneficial in day-long workshops: not only does it give each teacher’s voice a chance to rest, it reduces the risk that they will be so tired by the end of the day that they will start snapping at their students or fumbling at their keyboard.

Helping

Many people who aren’t comfortable teaching are still willing and able to provide in-class technical support. They can help learners with setup and installation, answer technical questions during exercises, monitor the room to spot people who may need help, or keep an eye on the shared notes (s:classroom-notetaking) and either answer questions there or remind the instructor to do so during breaks.

Helpers are sometimes people training to become teachers (i.e., they’re Teacher B in the teach and assist model), but they can also be members of the host institution’s technical support staff, alumni, or advanced learners who already know the material well. Using the latter as helpers is doubly effective: not only are they more likely to understand the problems their peers are having, it also stops them from getting bored.

If you and a partner are co-teaching, try to follow these rules:

• Take 2–3 minutes before the start of each class to confirm who’s teaching what with your partner. (If you have time to do some advance preparation, try drawing a concept map together.)

• Use that time to work out a couple of hand signals as well. “You’re going too fast”, “speak up”, “that learner needs help”, and, “It’s time for a bathroom break” are all useful.

• Each person should teach for at least 10–15 minutes at a stretch, since students may be distracted by more frequent interleaving.

• The person who isn’t teaching shouldn’t interrupt, offer corrections, elaborations, or amusing personal anecdotes, or do anything else to distract from what the person teaching at the time is doing or saying. The one exception is that it’s sometimes helpful to ask leading questions, particularly if the learners seem unsure of themselves.

• Each person should take a couple of minutes before they start teaching to see what their partner is going to teach after they’re done, and then not present any of that material.

• The person who isn’t teaching should stay engaged with the class, not catch up on their email. Monitor the shared notes (s:classroom-notetaking), keep an eye on the students to see who’s struggling, jot down some feedback to give your teaching partner at the next break—anything that contributes to the lesson is better than anything that doesn’t.

Most importantly, take a few minutes when the class is over to either congratulate or commiserate with each other. In teaching as in life, shared misery is lessened and shared joy increased: no one will understand how pleased you are that you helped someone understand loops better than the person you just taught with.

Assess Prior Knowledge

The more you know about your learners before you start teaching, the more you will be able to help them. If you’re working inside a formal school system, you can probably infer their incoming knowledge by looking at what’s (actually) covered in the prerequisites to your course. If you’re in a free-range setting, though, your learners may be much more diverse, so you may want to give them a short survey or questionnaire in advance of your class to find out what they do and don’t already know.

But doing this is risky. School trains people to treat all assessment as summative, i.e., to believe that anything that looks like an exam is something they have to pass, rather than a chance to shape instruction. If they answer “I don’t know” to even a handful of questions on your preassessment, they might conclude that your class is too advanced for them. In short, you might scare off many of the people you most want to help.

And self-assessment is unreliable because of the Dunning-Kruger effect Krug1999: the less people know about a subject, the less accurate their estimate of their knowledge is. Conversely, people who are competent may underrate their skills because they regard their level of competence as normal.

Rather than asking people to rate their knowledge from 1 to 5, you should therefore try to ask them how easily they could complete some specific tasks, but that still runs the risk of scaring them away. s:preassess presents a short preassessment questionnaire that most potential learners are unlikely to find intimidating; if you use it or anything like it, please be sure to follow up with people who don’t respond to find out why not.

Plan for Mixed Abilities

If your learners have widely varying levels of prior knowledge, then you can easily wind up in a situation where a third of your class is lost and a third is bored. That’s unsatisfying for everyone, but there are some strategies you can use to manage the situation:

• Before running a workshop, communicate its level clearly to everyone who’s thinking of signing up by listing the topics that will be covered and showing a few examples of exercises that they will be asked to complete.

• Provide extra self-paced exercises so that more advanced learners don’t finish early and get bored.

• Ask more advanced learners to help people next to them. They’ll learn from answering their peers’ questions (since it will force them to think about things in new ways).

• Keep an eye out for learners who are falling behind and intervene early so that they don’t become frustrated and give up.

The most important thing is to accept that no single lesson can possibly meet everyone’s individual needs. If you slow down to accommodate two people who are struggling, the other 38 are not being well served. Equally, if you spend a few minutes talking about an advanced topic to a learner who is bored, the rest of the class will feel left out.

False Beginners

A false beginner is someone who has studied a language before but is learning it again. False beginners may be indistinguishable from absolute beginners on preassessment tests, but are able to move much more quickly through the material once they start—in mathematical terms, their intercept is the same, but their slope is very different. False beginners are common in free-range programming classes: for example, a child may have taken a Scratch class a couple of years ago and built a mental model of loops and conditionals, but do poorly on a pre-test because the material isn’t fresh in their mind. All of the strategies described above can be used in classes with false beginners.

Being a false beginner is an example of preparatory privilege Marg2010. In many cases, it’s a result of coming from a home that’s secure enough and affluent enough to have several computers and parents who are familiar with how to use them. Whether or not this is fair depends on what you choose to include in your assessment.

Pair Programming

Pair programming is a software development practice in which two programmers share one computer. One person (the driver) does the typing, while the other (the navigator) offers comments and suggestions. The two switch roles several times per hour; this video is a quick explanation and demonstration.

Pair programming is an effective practice in professional work Hann2009, and is also a good way to teach: benefits include increased success rate in introductory courses, better software, and higher student confidence in their solutions; there is also evidence that students from underrepresented groups benefit even more than others McDo2006,Hank2011,Port2013,Cele2018. Partners can not only help each other out during the practical, but can also clarify each other’s misconceptions when the solution is presented, and discuss common research interests during breaks. I have found it particularly helpful with mixed-ability classes, since pairs are likely to be more homogeneous than individuals.

When you use pairing, put everyone in pairs, not just learners who are struggling, so that no one feels singled out. It’s also useful to have people sit in new places (and hence pair with different partners) on a regular basis, and to have people switch roles within each pair three or four times per hour, so that the stronger personality in each pair doesn’t dominate the session.

To facilitate pairing, use a flat (dinner-style) seating rather than banked (theater-style) seating; this also makes it easier for helpers to reach learners who need assistance. And take a few minutes to demonstrate what it actually looks like so that they understand the person who doesn’t have their hands on the keyboard isn’t supposed to just sit and watch. Finally, tell them about Lewi2015, who studied pair programming in a Grade 6 classroom, and found that pairs that focused on trying to complete the task as quickly as possible were less fair in their sharing.

Switching Partners

Teachers have mixed opinions on whether people should be required to change partners at regular intervals. On the one hand, it gives everyone a chance to gain new insights and make new friends. On the other, moving computers and power adapters to new desks several times a day is disruptive, and pairing can be uncomfortable for introverts. That said, Hann2010 found weak correlation between the “Big Five” personality traits and performance in pair programming, although an earlier study Wall2009 found that pairs whose members had differing levels of personality traits communicated more often.

Take Notes…Together?

Many studies have shown that taking notes while learning improves retention Aike1975,Boha2011. Taking notes is essentially a form of real-time elaboration (s:individual-strategies): it forces you to organize and reflect on material as it’s coming in, which in turn increases the likelihood that you will transfer it to long-term memory in a usable way.

Our experience, and some recent research findings, lead us to believe that taking notes collaboratively can is also effective, Ornd2015,Yang2015, even though taking notes on a computer is generally less effective than taking notes using pen and paper Muel2014.

The first time students encounter the practice, they sometimes report that they find it distracting, as it’s one more thing they have to keep an eye on. Some of the arguments in favor of doing it are:

• It allows people to compare what they think they’re hearing with what other people are hearing, which helps them fill in gaps and correct misconceptions right away.

• It gives the more advanced learners in the class something useful to do. Rather than getting bored and checking Twitter during class, they can take the lead in recording what’s being said, which keeps them engaged, and allows less advanced learners to focus more of their attention on new material. Keeping the more advanced learners busy also helps the whole class stay engaged because boredom is infectious: if a handful of people start updating their Facebook profiles, the people around them will start checking out too.

• The notes the learners take are usually more helpful to them than those the teacher would prepare in advance, since the learners are more likely to write down what they actually found new, rather than what the teacher predicted would be new.

• Glancing at the notes as they’re being taken helps the teacher discover that the class didn’t hear something important, or misunderstood it.

We usually use Etherpad or Google Docs for taking shared notes. The former makes it easy to see who’s written what, while the latter scales better and allows people to add images to the notes. Whichever is chosen, classes also use it to share snippets of code and small datasets, and as a way for learners to show teachers their work (by copying and pasting it in).

If you are going to have a group take notes together, make a list of everyone’s name and paste it into the document each time you want every person to answer a question or contribute an exercise solution. This prevents the situation in which everyone is trying to edit the same couple of lines at the same time.

In my experience, the benefits of shared note-taking outweigh the costs. If you are only working with a particular group once, though, please heed the advice in s:classroom-innovate and stick to whatever they are used to.

Sticky Notes

Sticky notes are one of my favorite teaching tools, and judging from Ward2015, I’m not alone in loving their versatility, portability, stickability, foldability, and subtle yet alluring aroma.

As Status Flags

Give each learner two sticky notes of different colors, e.g., orange and green. These can be held up for voting, but their real use is as status flags. If someone has completed an exercise and wants it checked, they put the green sticky note on their laptop; if they run into a problem and need help, they put up the orange one. This is better than having people raise their hands because it’s more discreet (which means they’re more likely to actually do it), they can keep working while their flag is raised, and the teacher can quickly see from the front of the room what state the class is in.

To Distribute Attention

Sticky notes can also be used to ensure the teacher’s attention is fairly distributed. Have each learner write their name on a sticky note and put it on their laptop. Each time the teacher calls on them or answers one of their questions, their sticky note comes down. Once all the sticky notes are down, everyone puts theirs up again.

This technique makes it easy for the teacher to see who they haven’t spoken with recently, which in turn helps them avoid the unconscious trap of only interacting with the most extroverted of their learners. It also shows learners that attention is being distributed fairly, so that when they are called on, they won’t feel like they’re being picked on.

As Minute Cards

You can use sticky notes as minute cards. Before each break, learners take a minute to write one positive thing on the green sticky note (e.g., one thing they’ve learned that they think will be useful), and one thing they found too fast, too slow, confusing, or irrelevant on the red one. They can use the red sticky note for questions that hasn’t yet been answered or something that they’re still confused about. While they are enjoying their coffee or lunch, the teachers review and cluster these to find patterns. It only takes a few minutes to see what learners are enjoying, what they still find confusing, what problems they’re having, and what questions are still unanswered.

Never a Blank Page

Programming workshops (and other kinds of classes) can be built around a set of independent exercises, develop a single extended example in stages, or use a mixed strategy. The main advantages of independent exercises are that people who fall behind can easily re-synchronize, and that lesson developers can add, remove, and rearrange material at will. A single extended example, on the other hand, will show learners how the bits and pieces they’re learning fit together: in educational parlance, it provides more opportunity for them to integrate their knowledge.

Whichever approach you take, novices should never start doing exercises with a blank page (or screen), since they often find this intimidating or bewildering. If they have been following along as you do live coding, you can ask them either to add a few more lines or to modify the example you have built up. Alternatively, if there is a shared note-taking space, you can paste in a few lines of starter code for them to extend or modify.

Modifying existing code instead of writing new code from scratch doesn’t just give learners structure: it is also closer to what they will do in real life. Keep in mind, however, that starter code may increase cognitive load, since learners can be distracted by trying to understand it all before they start their own work. Java’s public static void main() or a handful of import statements at the top of a Python program may make sense to you, but is extraneous load to them (s:load).

Adult learners tell us that it is important to them to leave programming classes with their own computers set up to do real work. We therefore strongly recommend that teachers be prepared to teach on all three major platforms (Linux, Mac OS, and Windows), even though it would be simpler to require learners to use just one.

To do this, put detailed setup instructions for all three platforms on your class website, and email learners a couple of days before the workshop starts to remind them to do the setup. Even with this, a few people will always show up without the right software, either because their other commitments didn’t allow them to go through the setup or because they ran into problems. To detect this, have everyone run some simple command as soon as they arrive and show the teachers the result, and then have helpers and other learners assist people who have run into trouble.

Common Denominators

If you have participants using several different operating systems, avoid using features which are OS-specific, and point out any that you do use. For example, some shell commands take different options on Mac OS than on Linux, while the “minimize window” controls and behavior on Windows are different from those on other platforms.

You can try using tools like Docker to put virtual machines on learners’ computers to reduce installation problems, but those introduce problems of their own. Older or smaller machines simply aren’t fast enough to run them, learners often struggle to switch back and forth between two different sets of keyboard shortcuts for things like copying and pasting, and even competent practitioners will become confused about what exactly is happening where.

All of this is so complicated that many teachers now use browser-based tools instead. This solves the installation issues, but makes the class dependent on institutional WiFi (which can be of highly variable quality). It also doesn’t satisfy adult learners’ desire to leave with their own machines ready for real-world use, but as cloud-native development tools like Glitch enter widespread use, that is less and less important.

Other Teaching Practices

None of the smaller practices described below are essential, but all will improve lesson delivery. As with chess and marriage, success in teaching is often a matter of slow, steady progress.

To begin your class, the teachers should give a brief introduction that will convey their capacity to teach the material, accessibility and approachability, desire for student success, and enthusiasm. Tailor your introduction to the students’ skill level so that you convey competence (without seeming too advanced) and demonstrate that you can relate to the students. Throughout the workshop, continually demonstrate that you are interested in student progress and that you are enthusiastic about the topics.

Students should also introduce themselves (preferably verbally). At the very least, everyone should add their name to the shared notes, but it’s also good for everyone at a given site to know who all is in the group. (This can be done while setting up before the start of the class.)

Setting up your environment is just as important as setting up your learners’, but more involved. As well as having all the software that they need, and network access to the tool they’re using to take notes, you should also have a glass of water, or a cup of tea or coffee. This helps keep your throat lubricated, but its real purpose is to give you an excuse to pause for a couple of seconds and think when someone asks a hard question or you lose track of what you were going to say next. You will probably also want some whiteboard pens and a few of the other things described in the travel kit checklist in s:events.

Avoid Homework in All-Day Formats

Learners who have spent an entire day programming will be tired. If you give them homework to do after hours, they’ll start the next day tired as well, so don’t do this.

Don’t Touch the Learner’s Keyboard

It’s often tempting to fix things for learners, but when you do, it can easily seem like magic (even if you narrate every step). Instead, talk your learners through whatever they need to do. It will take longer, but it’s more likely to stick.

Repeat the Question

Whenever someone asks a question in class, repeat it back to them before answering it to check that you’ve understood it, and to give people who might not have heard it a chance to do so. This is particularly important when presentations are being recorded or broadcast, since your microphone will usually not pick up what other people are saying. Repeating questions back also gives you a chance to redirect the question to something you’re more comfortable answering if need be…

One Up, One Down

We frequently ask for summary feedback at the end of each day. The teachers ask the learners to alternately give one positive and one negative point about the day, without repeating anything that has already been said. This requirement forces people to say things they otherwise might not: once all the “safe” feedback has been given, participants will start saying what they really think.

Minute cards are anonymous; the alternating up-and-down feedback is not. Each mode has its strengths and weaknesses, and by providing both, we hope to get the best of both worlds.

Have Learners Make Predictions

Research has shown that people learn more from demonstrations if they are asked to predict what’s going to happen Mill2013. Doing this fits naturally into live coding: after adding or changing a few lines of a program, ask someone what is going to happen when it’s run.

Setting Up Tables

You may not have any control over the layout of the desks or tables in the room in which your programming workshop takes place, but if you do, we find it’s best to have flat (dinner-style) seating rather than banked (theater-style) seating, so that you can reach learners who need help more easily, and so that learners can pair with one another (s:classroom-mixed). In-floor power outlets so that you don’t have to run power cords across the floor make life easier as well as safer, but are still the exception.

Whatever layout you have, try to make sure the seats have good back support, since people are going to be in them for an extended period, and check that every seat has an unobstructed view of the screen.

Cough Drops

If you talk all day to a room full of people, your throat gets raw because you are irritating the epithelial cells in your larynx and pharynx. This doesn’t just make you hoarse—it also makes you more vulnerable to infection (which is part of the reason people often come down with colds after teaching).

The best way to protect yourself against this is to keep your throat lined, and the best way to do that is to use cough drops early and often. Good ones will also mask the onset of coffee breath, for which your learners will probably be grateful.

Think-Pair-Share

Think-pair-share is a lightweight technique that helps people refine their ideas and compare them with others’. Each person starts by thinking individually about a question or problem and jotting down a few notes. Participants are then paired to explain their ideas to each another, and possibly to merge them or select the more interesting ones. Finally, a few pairs present their ideas to the whole group.

Think-pair-share works because, to paraphrase Oscar Wilde’s Lady Windermere, people often can’t know what they’re thinking until they’ve heard themselves say it. Pairing gives people new insight into their own thinking, and forces them to think through and resolve any gaps or contradictions before exposing their ideas to a larger group.

Morning, Noon, and Night

Smar2018 found that if students’ classes and other work is scheduled at times that don’t line up with their natural body clocks, they do less well—i.e., that if a morning person takes night classes or vice versa, their grades suffer. It’s usually not possible to accommodate this in small groups, but larger ones should try to stagger start times. This can also help people with childcare responsibilities and other constraints on their time.

Humor

Humor should be used sparingly when teaching: most jokes are less funny when written down, and become even less funny with each re-reading. Being spontaneously funny while teaching usually works better, but can easily go wrong: what’s a joke to your circle of friends may turn out to be a serious political issue to your audience. If you do make jokes when teaching, don’t make them at the expense of any group, or of anyone except possibly yourself.

Limit Innovation

Each of the techniques presented in this chapter will make your classes better, but you shouldn’t try to adopt them all at once. In fact, it may be best for your students if you don’t use any of them, particularly in situations where you and the students are only together for brief periods. The reason is that every new practice increases the student’s cognitive load: as well as absorbing what you’re trying to teach them about programming, they’re also having to learn a new way to learn. If you are working with them repeatedly, you can introduce one new technique every few lessons; if you only have them for a one-day workshop, it’s probably best to be conservative in your approach.

Exercises

Create a Questionnaire (individual/20)

Using the questionnaire in s:preassess as a template, create a short questionnaire you could give learners before teaching a class of your own. What do you most want to know about their background?

One of Your Own (whole class/15)

Think of one teaching practice that hasn’t been described so far. Present your idea to a partner, listen to theirs, and select one to present to the group as a whole. (This exercise is an example of think-pair-share.)

May I Drive? (pairs/10)

Swap computers with a partner (preferably one who uses a different operating system than you) and work through a simple programming exercise. How frustrating is it? How much insight does it give you into what novices have to go through all the time?

Pairing (pairs/15)

Watch this video of pair programming, then practice doing it with a partner. Remember to switch roles between driver and navigator every few minutes. How long does it take you to fall into a working rhythm?

Compare Notes (small groups/15)

From groups of 3–4 people and compare the notes that each person has taken while reading this material or following along with it in class. What did you think was noteworthy that your peers missed and vice versa? What did you understand differently?

Credibility (individual/15)

Fink2013 describes three things that make teachers credible in their learners’ eyes:

Competence:
knowledge of the subject as shown by the ability to explain complex ideas or reference the work of others.
Trustworthiness:
having the student’s best interests in mind. This can be shown by giving individualized feedback, offering a rational explanation for grading decisions, and treating all students the same.
Dynamism:

Describe one thing you do when teaching that fits into each category, and then describe one thing you don’t do but should for each category as well.

Measuring Effectiveness (individual/15)

Kirk1994 defines four levels at which to evaluate training:

Reaction:
how did the learners feel about the training?
Learning:
how much did they actually learn?
Behavior:
how much have they changed their behavior as a result?
Results:
how have those changes in behavior affected their output or the output of their group?

What are you doing at each level to evaluate what and how you teach? What could you do that you’re not doing?

Objections and Counter-Objections (think-pair-share/15)

You have decided not to ask your learners if your class was useful, because you know that there is no correlation between their answers and how much they actually learn (s:pck-now). Instead, you have put forward four proposals, each of which your colleagues have shot down:

See if they recommend the class to friends.
Why would this be any more meaningful than asking them how they feel about the class?
Give them an exam at the end.
But how much learners know at the end of the day is a poor predictor of how much they will remember two or three months later, and any kind of final exam will change the feel of the class, because school has conditioned learners to believe that exams are always high-stakes affairs.
Give them an exam two or three months later.
But that’s practically impossible with free-range learners, and the people who didn’t get anything out of the workshop are probably less likely to take part in follow-up, so feedback gathered this way will be skewed.
See if they keep using what they learned.
Again, since installing spyware on learners’ computers is frowned upon, how will this be implemented?

Working on your own, come up with answers to these objections, then swap responses with a partner and discuss the approaches you have come up with. When you are done, share your best counter-argument with the entire class.