# Motivation and Demotivation

Learners need encouragement to step out into unfamiliar terrain, so this chapter discusses ways teachers can motivate them. More importantly, it talks about ways teachers can accidentally demotivate them, and how to avoid doing that.

Our starting point is the difference between extrinsic motivation, which we feel when we do something to avoid punishment or earn a reward, and intrinsic motivation, which is what we feel when we find something personally rewarding. Both affect most situations—for example, people teach because they enjoy it and because they get paid—but we learn best when we are intrinsically motivated Wlod2017. According to self-determination theory, the three drivers of intrinsic motivation are:

Competence:
the feeling that you know what you’re doing.
Autonomy:
the feeling of being in control of your own destiny.
Relatedness:
the feeling of being connected to others.

A well-designed lesson encourages all three. For example, a programming exercise would give students practice with all the tools they need to use to solve a larger problem (competence), let them tackle the parts of that problem in whatever order they want (autonomy), and allow them to talk to their peers (relatedness).

I’ve never had an audience in my life. My audience is a rubric.

– quoted by Matt Tierney

Grades and the way they distort learning are often used as an example in discussion of extrinsic motivation, but as Mill2016a observes, they aren’t going to go away any time soon, so it’s pointless to try to build a system that ignores them. Instead, Lang2013 explores how courses that emphasize grades can incentivize students to cheat, and offers some tips on how to diminish this effect, while Covi2017 looks at the larger problem of balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in institutional education, and the constructive alignment approach advocated in Bigg2011 seeks to bring learning activities and learning outcomes into line with each other.

Ambr2010 contains a list of evidence-based methods to motivate learners. None of them are surprising—it’s hard to imagine someone saying that we shouldn’t identify and reward what we value—but it’s useful to check lessons against these points to make sure they’re doing at least a few of these things. One strategy I particularly like is to have students who struggled but succeeded come in and tell their stories to the rest of the class. Learners are far more likely to believe stories from people like themselves Mill2016a, and people who have been through your course will always have advice that you would never have thought of.

Not Just for Students

Discussions of motivation in education often overlook the need to motivate the teacher. Learners respond to a teacher’s enthusiasm, and teachers need to care about a topic in order to keep teaching it, particularly when they are volunteers. This is another powerful reason to co-teach (s:classroom-together): just as having a running partner makes it more likely that you’ll keep running, having a teaching partner helps get you up and going on those days when you have a cold and the projector bulb has burned out and nobody knows where to find a replacement and why are they doing construction work today of all days…

Teachers can do other positive things as well. Bark2014 found three things that drove retention for all students: meaningful assignments, faculty interaction with students, and student collaboration on assignments. Pace and workload (relative to expectations) were also significant drivers, but primarily for male students. Things that didn’t drive retention were interactions with teaching assistants and interactions with peers in extracurricular activities. These results may seem obvious, but the reverse would seem obvious too: if the study had found that extracurricular activities drove retention, we would also say “of course”. Noticeably, two of the four retention drivers (faculty interaction and student collaboration) take extra effort to replicate online (s:online).

As Dylan Wiliam points out in Hend2017, motivation doesn’t always lead to achievement, but achievement almost always leads to motivation: helping students succeed motivates them far more than telling them how wonderful they are. We can use this idea in teaching by creating a grid whose axes are “mean time to master” and “usefulness once mastered” (f:motivation-what).

Things that are quick to master and immediately useful should be taught first, even if they aren’t considered fundamental by people who are already competent practitioners, because a few early wins will build learners’ confidence in their own ability and their teacher’s judgment. Conversely, things that are hard to learn and have little near-term application should be skipped entirely, while topics along the diagonal need to be weighed against each other.

Many of the foundational concepts of computer science, such as recursion and computability, inhabit the “useful but hard to learn” corner of this grid. This doesn’t mean that they aren’t worth learning, but if our aim is to convince people that they can learn to program, and that doing so will help them do things that they care about, these big ideas can and should be deferred. Remember, people often don’t want to program for its own sake: they want to make music or explore changes to family incomes over time, and (rightly) regard programming as a tax they have to pay in order to do so.

A well-studied instance of prioritizing what’s useful without sacrificing what’s fundamental is the media computation approach developed at Georgia Tech Guzd2013. Instead of printing “hello world” or summing the first ten integers, a student’s first program might open an image, resize it to create a thumbnail, and save the result. This is an authentic task, i.e., something that learners believe they would actually do in real life. It also has a tangible artifact: if the image comes out the wrong size, learners have a concrete starting point for debugging. Lee2013 describes an adaption of this approach from Python to MATLAB, while others are building similar courses around data science, image processing, and biology Dahl2018,Meys2018,Ritz2018.

There will always be tension between giving learners authentic problems and exercising the individual skills that they will need to solve those problems. People don’t answer multiple choice questions or do Parsons Problems outside of a classroom, any more than most musicians play scales over and over again in front of an audience. Finding the balance is hard, but one easy first step is to make sure that exercises don’t include anything arbitrary or meaningless. For example, programming examples shouldn’t use variables called foo and bar, and if you’re going to have learners sort lines of text, give them album titles or people’s names or something relatable.

## Demotivation

Women aren’t leaving computing because they don’t know what it’s like; they’re leaving because they do know.

— variously attributed

If you are teaching in a free-range setting, your learners are probably volunteers, and probably want to be in your classroom. The exercise therefore isn’t how to motivate them, but how to not demotivate them. Unfortunately, you can do this by accident much more easily than you might think. For example, Cher2009 reported four studies showing that subtle environmental clues have a measurable difference on the interest that people of different genders have in computing: changing objects in a CS classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek posters and video games) to objects not considered stereotypical (e.g., nature poster, phone books) boosted female undergraduates’ interest in CS to the level of their male peers. Similarly, Gauc2011 reports a trio of studies showing that gendered wording commonly employed in job recruitment materials can maintain gender inequality in traditionally male-dominated occupations.

The three most powerful demotivators for adult learners are unpredictability, indifference, and unfairness. Unpredictability demotivates people because if there’s no reliable connection between what they do and what outcome they achieve, there’s no reason for them to try to do anything. Indifference demotivates because learners who believe that the teacher or educational system doesn’t care about them or the material won’t care about it either. And people are also demotivated if they believe something is unfair, even if it is unfair in their favor, because they will worry (consciously or unconsciously) that they will some day find themselves in the group on the losing end Wilk2011. In extreme situations, learners may develop learned helplessness: when repeatedly subjected to negative feedback in a situation that they can’t change, they may learn not to even try to change the things they could.

Here are a few specific things that will demotivate your learners:

A holier-than-thou or contemptuous attitude
from a teacher or a fellow learner.
Telling them that their existing skills are rubbish.
Unix users sneer at Windows, programmers of all kinds make jokes about Excel, and no matter what web application framework you already know, some programmer will tell you that it’s out of date. Learners have often invested a lot of time and effort into acquiring the skills they have; disparaging them is a good way to guarantee that they won’t listen to anything else you have to say.
Diving into complex or detailed technical discussion
with the most advanced learners in the class.
Pretending that you know more than you do.
Learners will trust you more if you are frank about the limitations of your knowledge, and will be more likely to ask questions and seek help.
Using the J word (“just”) or feigning surprise
(i.e., saying things like “I can’t believe you don’t know X” or “you’ve never heard of Y?”). As discussed in s:memory, this signals to the learner that the teacher thinks their problem is trivial and by extension that they must be stupid for not being able to figure it out.
People’s first contact with new programming tools, or programming in general, is often demoralizing, and believing that something is hard to learn is a self-fulfilling prophecy. It isn’t just the time it takes to get set up, or the feeling that it’s unfair to have to debug something that depends on precisely the knowledge they don’t yet have; the real problem is that every such failure reinforces their belief that they’d have a better chance of making next Thursday’s deadline if they kept doing things the way they always have.

It is even easier to demotivate people online than in person, but there are now evidence-based strategies for dealing with this. Ford2016 found that five barriers to contribution on Stack Overflow are seen as significantly more problematic by women than men: lack of awareness of site features, feeling unqualified to answer questions, intimidating community size, discomfort interacting with or relying on strangers, and the perception that they shouldn’t be slacking (i.e., the feeling that searching for things online wasn’t “real work”). Fear of negative feedback didn’t quite make this list, but would have been the next one added if the authors weren’t quite so strict about their statistical cutoffs. All of these factors can and should be addressed in both in-person and online settings using methods like those in s:motivation-inclusivity, and doing so improves outcomes for everyone Sved2016.

Productive Failure and Privilege

Some recent work has explored the notion of productive failure, where learners are deliberately given problems that can’t be solved with the knowledge they have, and have to go out and acquire new information in order to make progress Kapu2016. Ensuring that learners are blocked but not frustrated depends more on classroom culture and expectations than it does on the details of particular exercises.

Productive failure is superficially reminiscent of tech’s “fail fast, fail often” mantra, but the latter is more a sign of privilege than of understanding. People can only afford to celebrate failure if they’re sure they’ll get a chance to try again; many of your learners, and many people from marginalized or underprivileged groups, can’t be sure of that, and talking otherwise is a great way to turn them off.

### Impostor Syndrome

Impostor syndrome is the belief that you aren’t really good enough for a job or position—that your achievements are lucky flukes—and an accompanying fear of someone finding out. Impostor syndrome is common among high achievers who undertake publicly visible work, but most people suffer from it occasionally to some extent. It disproportionately affects members of under-represented groups: as discussed in s:pck-now, Wilc2018 found that female students with prior exposure to computing outperformed their male peers in all areas in introductory programming courses, but were consistently less confident in their abilities, in part because society keeps signalling in subtle and not-so-subtle ways that they don’t really belong.

Traditional classrooms can fuel impostor syndrome. Schoolwork is frequently undertaken alone or in small groups, but the results are shared and criticized publicly; as a result, we rarely see the struggles of others, only their finished work, which can feed the belief that everyone else finds it easy. Members of underrepresented groups who already feel additional pressure to prove themselves may be particularly affected.

The Ada Initiative has created some guidelines for fighting your own impostor syndrome, which include:

Talk about the issue with people you trust.
When you hear from others that impostor syndrome is a common problem, it becomes harder to believe your feelings of being a fraud are real.
Go to an in-person impostor syndrome session.
There’s nothing like being in a room full of people you respect and discovering that 90% of them have impostor syndrome.
Watch your words, because they influence how you think.
Saying things like, “I’m not an expert in this, but…” takes away from the knowledge you actually possess.
You will gain confidence in your own knowledge and skill, and you will help others avoid some impostor syndrome shoals.
Asking questions can be intimidating if you think you should know the answer, but getting answers eliminates the extended agony of uncertainty and fear of failure.
Build alliances.
Reassure and build up your friends, who will reassure and build you up in return. (And if they don’t, find new friends.)
Keep actively recording and reviewing what you have done, what you have built, and what successes you’ve had.

As a teacher, you can help people with their impostor syndrome by sharing stories of mistakes that you have made or things you struggled to learn. This reassures the class that it’s OK to find topics hard. Being open with the group makes it easier to build trust and make students confident to ask questions. (Live coding is great for this: as noted in s:performance-live, your typos show your class that you’re human.) You can also emphasize that you want questions: you are not succeeding as a teacher if no one can follow your class, so you’re asking students for their help to help you learn and improve.

### Stereotype Threat

Reminding people of negative stereotypes, even in subtle ways, can make them anxious about the risk of confirming those stereotypes, which in turn reduces their performance. This is called stereotype threat; Stee2011 summarizes what we know about stereotype threat in general and presents some strategies for mitigating it in the classroom.

Unwelcoming climates demotivate everyone, particularly members of under-represented groups, but it’s less clear that stereotype threat is the primary cause. Part of the problem is that the term has been used in many ways Shap2007; another is questions about the replicability of key studies. What is clear is that both instructors and learners must avoid using language that suggests that some people are natural programmers and others aren’t. Guzdial has called this the biggest myth about teaching computer science, and Pati2016 backed this up by showing that people see evidence for a “geek gene” where none exists:

Although it has never been rigorously demonstrated, there is a common belief that CS grades are bimodal. We statistically analyzed 778 distributions of final course grades from a large research university, and found only 5.8% of the distributions passed tests of multimodality. We then devised a psychology experiment to understand why CS educators believe their grades to be bimodal. We showed 53 CS professors a series of histograms displaying ambiguous distributions and asked them to categorize the distributions. A random half of participants were primed to think about the fact that CS grades are commonly thought to be bimodal; these participants were more likely to label ambiguous distributions as “bimodal”. Participants were also more likely to label distributions as bimodal if they believed that some students are innately predisposed to do better at CS. These results suggest that bimodal grades are instructional folklore in CS, caused by confirmation bias and instructors’ beliefs about their students.

Belief that some people get it and some don’t is particularly damaging because of feedback effects. Consciously or unconsciously, teachers tend to focus their attention on learners who seem to be doing well. That extra attention increases the odds that they will, while the corresponding neglect of other learners leaves them further and further behind Alvi1999,Brop1983,Juss2005.

### Mindset

Carol Dweck and others have studied the differences of fixed mindset and growth mindset. If people believe that competence in some area is intrinsic (i.e., that you either “have the gene” for it or you don’t), everyone does worse, including the supposedly advantaged. The reason is that if they don’t get it at first, they figure they just don’t have that aptitude, which biases future performance. On the other hand, if people believe that a skill is learned and can be improved, they do better on average.

As with stereotype threat, there are concerns that growth mindset has been oversold, or that research is much more difficult to put into practice than its more enthusiastic advocates have implied. Sisk2018 reported two meta-analyses, one looking at the strength of the relationship between mindset and academic achievement, the other at the effectiveness of mindset interventions on academic achievement. The overall effects for both were weak, but some results supported specific tenets of the theory, namely, that students with low socioeconomic status or who are academically at risk might benefit from mindset interventions.

## Accessibility

Not providing equal access to lessons and exercises is about as demotivating as it gets. This is often inadvertent: for example, my old online programming lessons presented the full script of the narration beside the slides—but none of the Python source code. Someone using a screen reader would therefore be able to hear what was being said about the program, but wouldn’t know what the program actually was.

It isn’t always possible to accommodate everyone’s needs, but it is possible to get a good working structure in place without any specific knowledge of what specific disabilities people might have. Having at least some accommodations prepared in advance also makes it clear that hosts and instructors care enough to have thought about problems in advance, and that any additional concerns are likely to be addressed.

It Helps Everyone

Curb cuts (the small sloped ramps joining a sidewalk to the street) were originally created to make it easier for the physically disabled to move around, but proved to be equally helpful to people with strollers and grocery carts. Similarly, steps taken to make lessons more accessible to people with various disabilities also help everyone else. Proper captioning of images, for example, doesn’t just give screen readers something to say: it also makes the images more findable by exposing their content to search engines.

The first and most important step in making lessons accessible is to involve people with disabilities in decision-making: the slogan nihil de nobis, sine nobis (literally, “nothing for us without us”) predates accessibility rights, but is always the right place to start. A few specific recommendations are:

Find out what you need to do.
Each of these posters offers do’s and don’ts for people on the autistic spectrum, users of screen readers, and people with low vision, physical or motor disabilities, hearing exercises, and dyslexia.
Know how well you’re doing.
For example, sites like WebAIM allow you to check how accessible your online materials are to visually impaired users.
Don’t do everything at once.
We don’t ask learners in our workshops to adopt all our best practices or tools in one go, but instead to work things in gradually at whatever rate they can manage. Similarly, try to build in accessibility habits when preparing for workshops by adding something new each time.
Do the easy things first.
There are plenty of ways to make workshops more accessible that are both easy and don’t create extra cognitive load for anyone: font choices, general text size, checking in advance that your room is accessible via an elevator or ramp, etc.

Coom2012,Burg2015 are good guides to visual design for accessibility. Their recommendations include:

Format documents with actual headings and other landmarks,
rather than just changing font sizes and styles.
Avoid using color alone to convey meaning in text or graphics:
use color plus cross-hatching or colors that are noticeably different in grayscale.
Remove all unnecessary elements
rather than just making them invisible, because screen readers will still often say them aloud.
Allow self-pacing and repetition
for people with reading or hearing issues.
Include narration of on-screen action
in videos.

### Conduct Revisited

We said in s:intro-code-of-conduct that classes should enforce a Code of Conduct like the one in s:conduct. This is a form of accessibility: while closed captions make video accessible to people with hearing disabilities, a Code of Conduct makes lessons accessible to people who would otherwise be marginalized.

As discussed in s:classroom-enforce, the details of the Code of Conduct are important, but the most important thing about it is that it exists and is enforced. Knowing that there are rules tells people a great deal about your values and about what kind of learning experience they can expect.

Group Signup

One way to support learners from marginalized groups is to have people sign up for workshops in groups rather than individually. That way, everyone in the room will know in advance that they will be with at least a few people they trust, which increases the chances of them actually coming. It also helps after the workshop: if people come with their friends or colleagues, they can work together to use what they’ve learned.

## Inclusivity

Inclusivity is a policy of including people who might otherwise be excluded or marginalized. In computing, it means making a positive effort to be more welcoming to women, under-represented racial or ethnic groups, people with various sexual orientations, the elderly, the physically exercised, the formerly incarcerated, the economically disadvantaged, and everyone else who doesn’t fit Silicon Valley’s white/Asian male demographic. Lee2017 is a brief, practical guide to doing that with references to the research literature. The practices it describes help learners who belong to one or more marginalized or excluded groups, but help motivate everyone else as well; while they are phrased in terms of term-long courses, many can be applied in our workshops:

Ask learners to email you before the workshop
to explain how they believe the training could help them achieve their goals.
to make sure they are free from gendered pronouns, include culturally diverse names, etc.
Emphasize that what matters is the rate at which they are learning,
Encourage pair programming,
but demonstrate it first so that learners understand the roles of driver and navigator.
Actively mitigate behavior that some learners may find intimidating,
e.g., use of jargon or “questions” that are actually asked to display knowledge.

At a higher level, committing to inclusive teaching may mean fundamentally rethinking content. This is a lot of work, but the rewards can be significant. For example, DiSa2014a found that 65% of male African-American participants in a game testing program went on to study computing, in part because the gaming aspect of the program was something their peers respected.

Work like this has to be done carefully. Lach2018 explored two strategies:

Community representation
highlights students’ social identities, histories, and community networks using after-school mentors or role models from students’ neighborhoods, or activities that use community narratives and histories as a foundation for a computing project.
Computational integration
incorporates ideas from the learner’s community, e.g., reverse engineering indigenous graphic designs in a visual programming environment.

The major risks of these approaches are shallowness (for community representation), e.g., using computers to build slideshows rather than do any real computing, and cultural appropriation (for computational integration), e.g., using practices without acknowledging origins. When in doubt, ask your learners and members of their community what they think you ought to do and give them control over content and direction. We return to this in s:community.

### Spoons

In 2003, Christine Miserandino started using spoons as a way to explain what it’s like to live with chronic illness. Healthy people start each day with an unlimited supply of spoons, but people with lupus or other debilitating conditions only have a few, and everything they do costs them one. Getting out of bed? That’s a spoon. Making a meal? That’s another spoon, and pretty soon, you’ve run out.

You cannot simply just throw clothes on when you are sick… If my hands hurt that day buttons are out of the question. If I have bruises that day, I need to wear long sleeves, and if I have a fever I need a sweater to stay warm and so on. If my hair is falling out I need to spend more time to look presentable, and then you need to factor in another 5 minutes for feeling badly that it took you 2 hours to do all this.

Spoons are often invisible, but as Elizabeth Patitsas has argued, people who have a lot can accumulate more, but people whose supply of spoons is limited may struggle to get ahead of the game. When you are designing classes and exercises, try to take into account the fact that some of your learners may have physical or mental obstacles that aren’t obvious. Again, when in doubt, ask your learners: they almost certainly have more experience with what works and what doesn’t than anyone else.

### Moving Past the Deficit Model

Depending on whose numbers you trust, only 12–18% of people getting computer science degrees are women, which is less than half the percentage seen in the mid-1980s (f:motivation-gender). And western countries are the odd ones for having such low percentage of women in computing: women are still often 30–40% of computer science students elsewhere Galp2002,Varm2015.

Since it’s unlikely that women have changed drastically in the last thirty years, we have to look for structural causes to understand what’s gone wrong and how to fix it. One reason is the way that home computers were marketed as “boys’ toys” starting in the 1980s Marg2003; another is the way that computer science departments responded to explosive growth in enrollment in the 1980s and again in the 2000s by changing admission requirements Robe2017, and as noted at the start of this section, these factors have excluded many other people as well. None of these factors may seem dramatic to people who aren’t affected by them, but they act like the steady drip of water on a stone: over time, they erode motivation, and with it, participation.

The first and most important step toward fixing this is to stop thinking in terms of a “leaky pipeline” Mill2015. More generally, we need to move past a deficit model i.e., to stop thinking that the members of under-represented groups lack something and are therefore responsible for not getting ahead. Believing that puts the burden on people who already have to work harder because of the inequities they face, and (not coincidentally) gives those who benefit from the current arrangements an excuse not to look at themselves too closely.

Rewriting History

Abba2012 describes the careers and accomplishments of the women who shaped the early history of computing, but have all too often been written out of that history; Ensm2003,Ensm2012 describes how programming was turned from a female into a male profession in the 1960s, while Hick2018 looks at how Britain lost its early dominance in computing by systematically discriminating against its most qualified workers: women. Milt2018 is a good review of all three books. Discussing this can make some men in computing very uncomfortable; in my opinion, that’s a good reason to do it more often.

Misogyny in video games, the use of “cultural fit” in hiring to excuse conscious or unconscious bias, a culture of silence around harassment, and the growing inequality in society that produces preparatory privilege (s:classroom-mixed) may not be any one person’s fault, but they are everyone’s responsibility. This workshop has excellent practical advice on how to be a good ally in tech; we will return to this topic in s:community.

## Exercises

Think about something you did this week that uses one or more of the skills you teach, (e.g., wrote a function, bulk downloaded data, did some stats in R, forked a repo) and explain how you would use it (or a simplified version of it) as an exercise or example in class.

1. Pair up with your neighbor and decide where this exercise fits on a 2x2 grid of “short/long time to master” and “low/high usefulness”.

2. Write the task and where it fits on the grid.

3. Discuss how these relate back to the “teach most immediately useful first” approach.

### Core Needs (whole class/10)

Paloma Medina identifies six core needs for people at work: belonging, improvement (i.e., making progress), choice, equality, predictability, and significance. After reading her description of these, order them from most to least significant for you personally, then compare rankings with your class using 6 points for most important, 5 for next, and so on down to 1 for least important. How do you think your rankings compare with those of your learners?

### Implement One Strategy for Inclusivity (individual/5)

Pick one activity or change in practice from Lee2017 that you would like to work on. Put a reminder in your calendar three months in the future to self-check whether you have done something about it.

### Brainstorming Motivational Strategies (think-pair-share/20)

1. Think back to a programming course (or any other) that you took in the past, and identify one thing the instructor did that demotivated you, and describe what could have been done afterward to correct the situation.

3. Review the comments in the shared notes as a group. Rather than read them all out loud, highlight and discuss a few of the things that could have been done differently. This will give everyone some confidence in how to handle these situations in the future.

### Demotivational Experiences (think-pair-share/15)

Think back to a time when you demotivated a student (or when you were demotivated as a student). Pair up with your neighbor and discuss what you could have done differently in the situation, and then share the story and what could have been done in the group notes.

### Walk the Route (whole class/15)

Find the nearest public transportation drop-off point to your building and walk from there to your office and then to the nearest washroom, making notes about things you think would be difficult for someone with mobility issues. Now borrow a wheelchair and repeat the journey. How complete was your list of exercises? And did you notice that the first sentence in this exercise assumed you could actually walk?

### Who Decides? (whole class/15)

In Litt2004, Kenneth Wesson wrote, “If poor inner-city children consistently outscored children from wealthy suburban homes on standardized tests, is anyone naive enough to believe that we would still insist on using these tests as indicators of success?” Read this article by Cameron Cottrill, and then describe an example from your own experience of “objective” assessments that reinforced the status quo.

### Common Stereotypes (pairs/10)

You will (still) sometimes hear people say, “It’s so simple that even your grandmother could use it.” In pairs, list two or three other phrases that reinforce stereotypes about computing.

### Not Being a Jerk (individual/15)

This short article by Gary Bernhardt rewrites an unnecessarily hostile message to be less rude. Using it as a model, find something unpleasant on Stack Overflow or some other public discussion forum and rewrite it to be less repellant.

### Saving Face (individual/10)

Are there any aspects of what you want to teach that members of your hoped-for audience might be embarrassed to admit to not knowing already? Are there any that they would rather their peers didn’t know they were learning? If so, what can you do to help them save face?

### After the Fact (whole class/15)

Cutt2017 surveyed adult computer users about their childhood activities and found that the strongest correlation between confidence and computer use were based on reading on one’s own and playing with construction toys with no moving parts (like Lego). Spend a few minutes searching online for ideas programmers have about how to tell if someone is going to be a good coder, or what non-coding activities correlate with programming ability, and see if these two ever come up.

### How Accessible Are Your Lessons? (pairs/30)

In pairs, choose a lesson whose materials are online and independently rank it according to the do’s and don’ts in these posters. Where did you and your partner agree? Where did you disagree? How well did the lesson do for each of the six categories of user?

### Tracing the Cycle (small groups/15)

Coco2018 traces a depressingly common pattern in which good intentions are undermined by an organization’s leadership being unwilling to actually change. Working in groups of 4–6, write brief emails that you imagine each of the parties involved would send to the other at each stage in this cycle.